2023, Volume 16, Issue 2

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    Analysis of women’s economic engagement in the agricultural economy and factor affecting it: a case study of fatehabad district of Haryana state / Analiza zaangażowania ekonomicznego kobiet w gospodarce rolnej i czynników na nie wpływających: studium przypadku dystryktu fatehabad w stanie Hariana
    (Akademia Bialska im. Jana Pawła II, 2023-06-29) Kaliravna, Varsha Rani ; Godrara, Abhey Singh
    Subject and purpose of work: The study analysed women’s contribution to agricultural activities in small, medium and large farm sizes and also examined the socio-economic factors that affect women’s participation in the agricultural sector. Materials and methods: The study is entirely based on primary data collected from a field survey with the help of a pre-structured questionnaire. A simple tabulated method and multiple regression method has been employed to make conclusions. Results: The study has revealed that the participation of women in the agricultural sector is the highest in the small and medium farm size and selected socio-economic variables explain the 85.4% association with women’s participation in the selected area. Conclusions: The study concluded that employment-wise participation of the respondent’s decreases with the increase in farm size and the relationship between women’s participation and farm size, family income and education is statistically significant.
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    Loan utilisation and repayment behaviour: evidence from farmers of Haryana / Zachowania w zakresie wykorzystania i spłaty pożyczek: na przykładzie rolników ze stanu Hariana
    (Akademia Bialska im. Jana Pawła II, 2023-06-29) Jakhar, Babloo ; Kait, Rohtas ; Kumar, Vijay
    Subject and purpose of work: The present paper assesses the loan utilisation and repayment behaviour of loanee or indebted farmers in Haryana, India. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in Haryana state. The study is based on primary data that have been collected through schedules from a sample of 600 indebted farmers. Proportionate sampling was employed. Further, a percentage is used for data analysis. Results: The study found that about half of the loan amount was utilised by farmers in nonproductive activities that directly stimulate the debt burden on them, because this type of expenditure did not contribute to the earnings of farmers. Further, around two-fifth of the farmers were regularly repaying their loans, one fifth were defaulters and remaining two-fifth were paying their loan irregularly. Overall, Farmers’ repayment behaviour is not satisfactory. Conclusions: The non-productive usage of the loan amount is one of the main causes of their indebtedness. Reducing such expenditure is one of the main challenges for farmers without generating other sources of income.
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    Growth and trends of agriculture: food grain production and area in India / Wzrost i trendy w rolnictwie: produkcja i powierzchnia upraw zbóż spożywczych w Indiach
    (Akademia Bialska im. Jana Pawła II, 2023-06-29) Rani, Mamta
    Subject and purpose of work: The purpose of this study is to determine the area and production status of food grains in India. Materials and methods: The current study was conducted using secondary data that was gathered from numerous sources, including the Statistical Abstract of Haryana, and the Economic Survey. Between 1991-1992 and 2021-2022, the area and production of food grains have seen a compound growth rate. Results: The results show a fluctuating trend in area and production during the years 1991-92 to 2021-22. For the study period, the mean average of the production and area of food grains was estimated. Conclusions: Agriculture is still as ignificant sector for the economy from the perspectives of self-sufficiency and employment, despite the sector’s diminishing GDP proportion over time. The trajectory and expansion of Gross Value Added (GVA), investments in agriculture, and food grain crops were all examined in this article.
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    Regional differences in the management and financial performance of hospitals in Hungary / Regionalne różnice w zarządzaniu i wynikach finansowych szpitali na Węgrzech
    (Akademia Bialska im. Jana Pawła II, 2023-06-29)
    Subject and purpose of work: The NUTS2 regions of Hungary show great differences in economic and social terms. For example, in the Budapest region, GDP per capita is around 150% of the EU27 average, while in half of the NUTS2 regions GDP per capita is below 50% of the EU27 average. Can these regional differences be observed in the management and operation of hospitals in Hungary? Materials and methods: The balance sheets and income statements of the hospitals were collected from the CREFOPORT database and the missing financial statements were requested directly from the hospitals. The capacity and performance data used in addition to the financial data were taken from the annual statements available on the NEAK website. The data were collected in December 2021 and the beginning of 2022. Specific indicators were constructed from the financial and performance data. The relationships between indicators and regions were first tested by analysis of variance using the ANOVA menu in SPSS. This was followed by a Bonferroni test. Results: For wealth indicators and profitability data, the closeness of the relationship is medium for most indicators, but no significant difference was found for any region using post-hoc tests except for one indicator. The indicator ETA shows a weak to medium strength relationship between liquidity indicators and NUTS2 classification, but with Bonferroni post-hoc tests no significant difference between regions except for one relationship (2016, Budapest-Pest). The same can be said when examining occupational indicators. Conclusions: There are two- to threefold differences between the minimum and maximum values of GDP per capita and the average income of the regions. However, public hospitals in regions with different levels of development do not show significant differences from a financial and professional point of view. Thus, hospitals with different financial and professional situations are not associated with regions of different development.